The Department of Pathology and Laboratory medicine offers a residency in anatomic and clinical pathology as well as one-year fellowships in cytopathology, neuropathology, and surgical pathology. The AP/CP residency and the cytopathology fellowship and neuropathology fellowship are accredited by the ACGME while the surgical pathology fellowship is recognized by the University of Kentucky Graduate Medical Education division.

The GME programs offer a wide spectrum of experiences in clinical practice (including VA hospital and community practice), laboratory techniques and management, and research. Flexibility in scheduling is allowed to maximize the educational experience.